Motivation

Hierarchy of needs: A H Maslow, 1950s and 60s

Motivation diagram

1. Biological: Hunger, warmth, rest

2. Safety: Protection from danger

3. Socialization: Love, affection, affiliation

4. Self-esteem: Autonomy, dignity, respect

5. Self-actualization: Realise one's potential through competence, creativity, and achievement


Management by objectives

Management fundamentals: Peter Drucker, 1960s and 70s

Strategic management

Setting objectives for staff, and assessing achievement

Decentralisation

Managing in turbulent times


Theory Z

Theory Z: WS Ouchi, 1980s

Well managed companies in US and Japan had lifetime employment, collective decision making, promotion from within, non-specialised career paths

Characterised as a "democratic" management style

XYZ diagram
 
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