1980s: Populist approaches, Empirical approaches
Used widely in Business Process Reengineering projects
Characterised as a "democratic" management style
A management consultant is called in to help the Americans. He finds that the Japanese boat had two people overseeing six rowers, while the Americans had seven managers and one rower. The consultant suggests a radical reengineering program, then calls for a rematch.
This time the Japanese team defeats the Americans by two miles. More consultants are called in. They find that the Japanese team were now using one manager and seven rowers, while the U.S. team employed six management consultants, one senior manager and one rower.
The U.S. team immediately fires the rower and calls for another restructuring.
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