1920s: Bureaucracy, Universalism
1930s: Human relations
1960s: Complex man, Management by objectives
1980s: Populist approaches, Empirical approaches
Monetary incentives (piece work)
Ford Motor Company embraced Taylor's work
See Doray, 1988
See also Accel-Team.com's notes on Scientific Management
A record of a discussion thread about using money as an incentive for software developers
Gulick: Planning, organising, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, budgeting
Terry: Planning, organising, directing, coordinating, controlling, leading
Note: Studies by Mintzberg and Kotter found successful managers spend little time doing these. Instead they cultivate networks and personal contacts
The need to achieve consistency gave rise to need for rules and regulations
All tasks routine, each person expert, all transactions written
Invented before bureaucracy became a bad word!
This approach has become discredited due to its own success !!
Organisations find bureaucracy so appealing that it grows uncontrollably. The organisation becomes more important than its purpose
Once, the Italian government had 20 bureaus studying how to cut out much of its unnecessary bureaucracy
Question: How does this compare with growth in use of methodologies?
Read summaries of Weber's books produced by students at The University of Chicago. (Long document.)
Experiments with consulting workers about work-place lighting levels improved productivity for both the experimental and the control groups. Similar experiments found productivity always improved, no matter what one changed
Read an account of the Hawthorne Experiments by Accel-Team.
1. Biological: Hunger, warmth, rest
2. Safety: Protection from danger
3. Socialization: Love, affection, affiliation
4. Self-esteem: Autonomy, dignity, respect
5. Self-actualization: Realise one's potential through competence, creativity, and achievement
We have looked at people from economic, social and self actualising stand-points
All of these approaches may be considered too simplistic
Setting objectives for staff, and assessing achievement
Managing in turbulent times
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