What makes a leader?

The qualities or traits approach ("Great person")

The functional approach

Kretch et al (1962) identified 14 leadership functions

The styles of leadership approach

There are many versions of this:

Tannenbaum & Schmidt (1973) have a continuum

The "styles" approach says the best point on the continuum depends on forces in the leader, the subordinates and the decision

Employee-centred vs. production centred approach

Blake & Mouton (1964) and Likert (1961), use a two dimensional grid

Concern for people Hi

Country club management Team management

Impoverished management Authority compliance
Lo Hi
Concern for production

The contingency approach

The style of leadership develops during the life of an organisation, for example (Clarke & Pratt, 1985):

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